The causes of diabetes are not clearly known. There is still a mystery in it. Medical scientists are unable to tell, thats why some people suffer from diabetes while others do not. There are certain factors which may lead to diabetes. These factors are considered as risk factors and an individual must try to overcome them.
First of all, the question comes in mind - Is Diabetes Inherited?
If Diabetes is known to run in the family for many years then heredity plays a major role in development of diabetes. People who belong to family background having history of diabetes are 25% more prone to develop diabetes.
In case of twins either one twin may have diabetes and the other remains free from the disease or both may have diabetes. But the care must be taken to control the diabetes, by maintaining blood glucose level normal of the expectant mother, so that the diabetes is not passed into her child. Family history of diabetes mellitus is present in about 5.5% to 11.6% of the patients suffering from the disease.
Diet, is also a major factor responsible for causing diabetes.
Eating too much of Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, are all harmful to the body. Our body in general needs a balanced diet to produce energy for performing vital functions. Too much of food, hampers the pancreas from performing its function of insulin secretion. Hence, with insufficient insulin secretion, the blood sugar level rises, leading to diabetes mellitus. Normally, people are in habit of eating foods rich in refined carbohydrates, like biscuits, bread, cakes, chocolate, ice creams, pudding, etc. So, the incidences of diabetes are increased in such persons.
Furthermore, parents must be educated to take care of their children dietary habits. They should stop their habit of overeating. Childrens should not be given candies, toffees, chocolates, jam, cake, etc, to eat. Instead they must be put on healthy diet, necessary for their proper growth and development. They must be convinced regarding the value of exercise and should know about the ill effects of obesity.
Obesity is also one of the major factors causing diabetes. Excessive body weight as compared to the height of an individual, serves as a predisposing factor for diabetes mellitus. It is commonly seen in patients at 40 years of age suffering from Type 2 Non-Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Due to extra amount of fat in the body, the insulin does not function properly in the body. Normally, the main function of Insulin is to allow the sugar present in the blood to enter the muscle and tissue cells. But due to increased fat in the body, the muscle and tissue cells become resistant to insulin, leading to high blood sugar level in blood (hyperglycemia) and finally diabetes.
Thereby, the best way to improve blood sugar level is by losing weight, in case of over weight people. Even a small weight reduction, would show wonderful effects and our medicines will work more effectively.
Virus infections can also lead to diabetes. Certain virus like Coxsackie B virus may infect the pancreas, leading to destruction of Beta (B) cells of Islets of Lange home, finally impairing the release of insulin and increased blood sugar levels.
Nowadays, the life styles of people have changed drastically. They no longer believe in physical work or exercises and instead prefer a comfortable life, spending long hours sitting on chair. It has been noted that the lesser active a person is, the greater is the risk of developing diabetes. Through latest advancements made in exercises, a person’s weight can be maintained under control, glucose present in the blood can be utilized by cells to generate energy and finally the work load on Pancreas can be reduced.
Age is the commonest predisposing factor for diabetes. It has been observed that as one grows older, particularly above 45 years of age, in them the chances to develop diabetes are increased.
It is chiefly because due to old age, the person becomes less active, tends to gain weight, leading to pancreatic dysfunction.
Emotional stress, also lead to diabetes. Nowadays, people have highly stressed life, busy, whole of time in daily/routine exertive works. Pancreatic insufficiency is counsel due to irregular and chaotic life style which deeply influences the metabolism of the body. Even grief, anxiety, worry, death of any close person, etc. may alter the blood sugar level and lead to the disease.
People who smoke frequently (at short intervals) are highly susceptible to develop diabetes. They are very much prone of developing retinopathy and joint immobility. If the diabetic patient does not stop smoking, then there are chances of premature mortality.
People of certain races like Hispanic, Native American, and African American, Asian American, or Pacific Island descent are at the major risk factor to develop Diabetes mellitus.