The word diabetes, meaning “Siphon” was first given by the Greek physician Arateus in the 2nd century describe patients with great thirst and excessive variation. In the 17the century, it was observed that urine of diabetic patients was sweet, so the word mellitus, meaning ‘honey honey’ was added to it. The sweet urine of diabetics is due to increased blood sugar level which leads to spillage of glucose into the urine. The sweet urine of diabetic individuals attracts various flies, bees, ants, etc. Hence, Diabetes mellitus is a clinical disorder in which blood sugar levels are abnormally high known as Hyperglycaemia. It occurs due to absence or insufficient production of Insulin. It is a chronic condition, as it lasts lifetime, but can be well controlled. Diabetes mellitus is known as “Madhumeha” in Ayurveda. It is also known as “rich man’s disease” because people who are over nourished usually get afflicted by it.
It is a very common disease, affecting an estimated 150 million people worldwide. It is an endocrine disorder causing various metabolic changes in the body leading to severe complications such as damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels. If managed properly, it can be well controlled but if not managed daily, medical emergencies can arise. The incidence of Diabetes are increasing rapidly and the day is no far, when number of individuals affected by diabetes will double.
Another form of diabetes, known as Diabetes insipidus is known. It is a rare disease. In this case, the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus of brain, functions abnormally. It leads to lack of vasopressin a hormone that controls the amount of water leaving the body as urine. So the kidney cannot retain water that passes to them from the blood. The patient urinates excessively and becomes extremely thirsty. But the urine of such patients is face from sugar. Most cases of Diabetes Insipid us cannot be cured, but the disease can be kept under control by taking vasopressin.
The American Dental Association has recommended to screen the individuals for diabetes at least every three years. A person at high risk should be screen more often. This makes the patient aware of the disease, and proper measures can be taken to prevent it. Nov. 14 is the World Diabetes Day and Survey Data has shown an alarming 14% increase the number of people with diabetes in the past two years alone. They have warned of a coming ‘explosion” in diabetes and its complications unless action is taken to curb the mush roaming incidence of Diabetes.