If one needs to control the level of blood sugar, the first important thing is to know about is the different factors that cause an increase in its level. The following are some of the directly contributing factors in increasing blood sugar level:-

(1) Food

Food is obviously the first and the most direct factor in influencing the level of sugar in the blood. All sugars are carbohydrates. Hence, more the number of carbohydrates present in the food, more will be the amount of sugar building up in the bloodstream. The sugar in the blood is highest one to two hours after a proper meal, but afterwards it starts reducing due to the metabolic processes that set in.

(2) Exercise

When we exercise, we require energy. This is obtained by utilizing the glucose that is taken inside the body. The more we exercise, the more is insulin induced in disintegrating the glucose content of the body. This leads to a reduction in the amount of sugar present in the blood. It must be noted here that exercise doesn’t always mean vigorous physical activity. Even a mild form of exercise such as walking or running can help reduce the blood sugar level appreciably.

(3) Obesity

The more obese a person is, the more are the chances of high blood sugar levels. Obesity interferes with the normal reception of the glucose-utilizing cells to insulin. Hence, the glucose remains in the body, increasing the risk of diabetes mellitus.

(4) Liver Metabolism

The pancreas secretes insulin, hence it is doubtless the most important organ in the control of blood sugar. The liver comes next to pancreas in diabetes control. The liver stores sugar in the form of glycogen. When the body does not get nourishment, then the liver breaks down this glycogen and releases it as sugar into the bloodstream. If this process of storing glucose as glycogen and then releasing it back as glucose goes on continuously in the body, then the natural balance of blood sugar is disturbed.

(5) Lifestyle

Lifestyle is a very important contributing factor to the buildup of blood sugar levels, giving rise to diabetes mellitus. So much so, that diabetes mellitus is being called by names as rich man’s disease, urban disease, lifestyle-related disease, etc. There are several points of note here:-

  • People who lead a sedentary lifestyle have a very poor body mechanism. The glucose in their blood is not assimilated properly.
  • People who live a rich lifestyle have more access to all kinds of food, including junk food. These people tend to eat more and hence increase their blood sugar levels to drastic levels.
  • People living in cities have more chances of high blood sugar levels than people living in the villages. The simple reason for this is, rural people depend more on natural foods than urban people, who do not mind binging on harmful synthetic foods.
  • People who have food fads, i.e. people with strong likes and dislikes in food, also stand greater chances of getting diabetes. Such people seldom get to eat a wholesome diet, due to which there may be deficiencies in one type of food, and excess in another.

(6) Medications

Several medicines have an adverse effect on the level of sugars in the blood. The medication taken for diabetes mellitus, which is insulin-based, could itself affect the level of blood sugar drastically. Insulin is taken to lower the blood sugar count. But sometimes, a faulty dosage can dangerously decrease or increase the level of sugar in the blood.

Many times, medications that are taken for other conditions can also adversely effect the total blood sugar level. Hence, it is very important to let the doctor know in advance of the diabetes mellitus condition. The doctor would substitute the medication with another that does not cause glucose increase, or would add another medicine to bring the sugar level down.

(7) General Body Health

Blood sugar level increases due to illnesses since a sick body may not have the proper energy to utilize the sugars properly. Diseases like common cold and influenza can directly increase the blood sugar levels. A similar upward trend is seen in case o bacterial infections. In such cases, there are hormonal imbalances that do not allow the blood sugar to be utilized properly.

(8) Mental Factors

Excessive stress, depression, anger, hate and such other emotions can cause a rise in the levels of the blood sugar. This is because, when the mind overworks, there is always a hormonal imbalance. Since insulin itself is a hormone, its amount is also affected. As a result, it is not able to utilize glucose properly.

(9) Alcohol

Alcohol has a direct effect on the human liver. When alcohol is consumed, it interferes with the capacity of the liver to release the sugars from glycogen. This is actually a method in which alcohol reduces the blood sugar.

But this does not always happen. In fact, the exact opposite of this happens. When too much alcohol is consumed, then the body is more in peril due to the excess calories present in it. For this reason, it is advised that alcohol in moderation can help in controlling blood sugar, but an excess of it can be highly dangerous.